A REPORTER'S TOOLKIT: MEDICAID

An Alliance for Health Reform Toolkit -
Produced with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

This toolkit will help you understand who the Medicaid program covers, how it is financed, how it differs from Medicare, how states can alter Medicaid through federal waivers, and what the future holds for the program. This resource also offers story ideas, selected experts with contact information, selected websites and a glossary.

This toolkit was compiled and written by Dinesh Kumar.

 

Key Facts

  • Medicaid is a public health insurance program for low-income persons with acute care, chronic care and/or long-term care needs. It should not be confused with Medicare, which covers people age 65 and older, and certain people with disabilities.
  • Medicaid is jointly financed by the states and the federal government, and is administered by the states within broad federal guidelines.
  • An estimated 60 million people received Medicaid-financed services for at least part of 2006. 1 A smaller number (45.7 million) were covered by Medicaid at one point in time (June 30) that year. 2
  • In Fiscal Year 2007, Medicaid enrollment experienced a 0.5 percent decrease, the first such decline since 1998. In explaining the reduction, Medicaid directors cited both lower unemployement and delays in processing applications due to new federal citizenship documentation requirements. 3
  • In 2005, $305.5 billion in combined federal and state funds was spent for Medicaid, 4 and total spending for 2006 was an estimated $304.1 billion. 5
  • In FY 2006, Medicaid made up an estimated 22.2 percent of total state spending and 18.1 percent of state general fund expenditures. 6
  • Reversing a six-year trend, Medicaid is not expected to be the fasting growing category of state general fund spending in FY 2007. Instead, K-12 education is projected to take the top spot. 7
  • Medicaid is the largest insurer of low-income children, low-income pregnant women and newborns, low-income people with disabilities, and those requiring long-term care. 8
  • Medicaid is a critical source of financing for the nation's health care safety net, including community health centers, public clinics, and other providers that serve low-income people. 9

Selected Resources

Please email info@allhealth.org if you find that any of the links mentioned in this toolkit no longer work.

Basics: Statistics, Eligibility, Costs

Federal and State Medicaid Financing

Medicaid Waivers

Reforms and Barriers to Enrollment - Federal Level

  • "The President's Budget: Improving Medicaid and SCHIP"
    Nina Owcharenko, Heritage Foundation, February 7, 2007
    www.heritage.org/Research/HealthCare/Medicaid/wm1348.cfm
  • "Deficit Reduction Act of 2005: Implications for Medicaid"
    Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, February 2006
    www.kff.org/medicaid/7465.cfm
  • "Survey Indicates the Deficit Reduction Act Jeopardizes Medicaid Coverage for 3 to 5 Million U.S. Citizens"
    Leighton Ku and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, January 26, 2006
    www.cbpp.org/1-26-06health.htm

    For a more recent study on how the documentation requirement affects Hispanics and Non-Hispanics differently, see this paper by Donna Cohen Ross, also from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: www.cbpp.org/7-10-07health.htm

Reforms and Barriers to Enrollment - State Level

Medicaid & Children's Health

  • "Dynamics in Medicaid and SCHIP Eligibility Among Children in SCHIP's Early Years: Implications for Reauthorization"
    Anna S. Sommers and others, Health Affairs, August 24, 2007
    www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=19911&catid=15
  • "Covering Kids & Families Case Study in Michigan: Exploring Medicaid and SCHIP Enrollment Trends and their Links to Policy and Practice"
    Eileen Ellis and others, Mathematica Policy Research (commissioned by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation), May 2007
    www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=19038&topicid=1103

    Note: The Covering Kids and Families website is merging with the Cover the Uninsured site - www.covertheuninsured.org. Both are sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Medicare/Medicaid Dual Eligibility

Medicaid & Managed Care

Medicaid & Long-Term Care

Medicaid & Disparities in Care

Story Ideas

  • Nationwide, losses in the numbers of people covered by private insurance have not been made up by gains in coverage under public programs, including Medicaid. What's happening in your state? Is the situation better or worse for children compared to adults?
  • How much does your state project Medicaid spending will be next year? In five years, and in 10 years? How is that affecting state budget planning? What are the leading ideas for controlling costs without sacrificing coverage?
  • How does your state compare to its neighboring states or to the U.S. as a whole in Medicaid coverage and spending? Using the custom data sheets (available at www.statehealthfacts.org/medicaid.jsp ), what are the significant differences in eligibility, benefits, and spending between your state and others? What are the underlying reasons?
  • What changes has your state made in eligibility or benefits recently? How have these changes affected access for beneficiaries? How have they affected those health care providers (such as public hospitals, community health centers, or nursing homes) that serve a large number of Medicaid beneficiaries?
  • How much per beneficiary does it cost to provide health services to certain categories of Medicaid care recipients vs. others? Do recent or proposed cuts in the program target services for certain groups of beneficiaries, and if so, is this related to their per beneficiary cost?
  • New cost-sharing requirements may save states money if they deter people from enrolling and induce beneficiaries to seek fewer services. Is this occurring in your state?
  • How are the Deficit Reduction Act citizenship documentation requirements being implemented in your state? Are there elderly people or nursing home residents without papers? What have they used for records until now?
  • How many people in your state are classified as Medicare-Medicaid "dual eligibles"? What are the costs of treating these dual eligibles in your state?
  • Is your state experiencing Medicaid "crowd-out" - people switching from private coverage to Medicaid?

Selected Experts

Drawn from the Alliance for Health Reform's Find-an-Expert Service for reporters. Descriptions in quotes are written by the experts themselves. Credentialed reporters can see full profiles for these and other experts, including after-hours contact numbers, by going to www.allhealth.org/reporter_enroll.asp

  • LISA ALECXIH
    Vice President, The Lewin Group
    Falls Church VA 22042
    703-269-5542
    lisa.alecxih@lewin.com
  • JOAN ALKER
    Senior Researcher, Center for Children and Families, Georgetown University
    Washington DC 20057-1485
    202-784-4075
    jca25@georgetown.edu
  • JOSEPH ANTOS
    Wilson H. Taylor Scholar in Health Care and Retirement Policy, American Enterprise Institute
    Washington DC 20036
    202-862-5938
    jantos@aei.org
  • KATHERINE BAICKER
    Professor of Health Economics, Harvard School of Public Health
    Boston MA 02115
    617-432-4434
    kbaicker@hsph.harvard.edu
  • RICHARD BRINGEWATT
    President, National Health Policy Group
    Washington, DC 20004
    202-624-1516
    rbringewatt@nhpg.org
  • MICHAEL CANNON
    Director of Health Policy Studies, Cato Institute
    Washington DC 20001
    202-842-0200
    mcannon@cato.org
  • DAVID COLBY
    Vice President, Research and Evaluation
    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
    609-627-5754
    dcolby@rwjf.org
  • KAREN DAVENPORT
    Director of Health Policy, Center for American Progress
    Washington DC 20005
    202-741-6368
    kdavenport@americanprogress.org
  • KAREN DAVIS
    President, The Commonwealth Fund
    New York NY 10021
    212-606-3825
    kd@cmwf.org
  • NANCY-ANN DEPARLE
    Adjunct Professor of Health Care Systems, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
    Washington DC 20015
    202-362-4566
    ndeparle@starpower.net
  • ALLEN DOBSON
    Sr. VP Director of Health Care Finance, The Lewin Group
    Falls Church VA 22042
    703-269-5590
    al.dobson@lewin.com
  • JIM DUFFETT
    Executive Director, Illinois Campaign for Better Health Care
    Champaign IL 61820
    217-352-5600
    jduffett@cbhconline.org
  • JUDY FEDER
    Professor and Dean of Public Policy, Georgetown University
    Washington, DC 20007
    202-687-8397
    federj@georgetown.edu
  • DEBORAH FREUND
    Distinguished Professor, Syracuse University
    Syracuse NY 13244-1020
    315-443-9050
    dfreund@syr.edu
  • ROBERT FRIEDLAND
    Director, Center on an Aging Society
    Washington DC 20057
    202-687-1287
    rbf4@georgetown.edu
  • PATRICIA GABOW
    CEO and Medical Director, Denver Health
    Denver CO 80204
    303-436-5386 (Barrow)
    bobbi.barrow@dhha.org
  • MARSHA GOLD
    Senior Fellow, Mathematica Policy Research
    Washington DC 20024
    202-484-4227
    MGold@Mathematica-MPR.com
  • VAL J. HALAMANDARIS
    President, The National Association for Homecare and Hospice
    Washington DC 20878
    202-547-7424
    vjh@nahc.org
  • MICHAEL HASH
    Principal, Health Policy Alternatives, Inc.
    Washington DC 20001
    202-737-3390
    mh.hpa@sso.org
  • ROBERT HELMS
    Resident Scholar, Health Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute
    Washington DC 20036
    202-862-5877
    rhelms@aei.org
  • JACK HOADLEY
    Research Professor, Georgetown University Health Policy Institute
    Washington DC 20057
    202-687-1055
    jfh7@georgetown.edu
  • JOHN HOLAHAN
    Director, Health Policy Center, The Urban Institute
    Washington DC 20037
    202-261-5666
    jholahan@ui.urban.org
  • EDWARD F. HOWARD
    Exec V-P, Alliance for Health Reform
    Washington DC 20005
    202-789-2300
    edhoward@allhealth.org
  • CHRIS JENNINGS
    President, Jennings Policy Strategies, Inc.
    Washington DC 20001
    202-879-9344
    ccj@jenningsps.com
  • RICHARD KAPLAN
    Professor of Law, University of Illinois
    Champaign IL 61820-6909
    217-333-2499
    rkaplan@law.uiuc.edu
  • GENEVIEVE KENNEY
    Principal Research Associate, The Urban Institute
    Washington DC 20037
    202-261-5568
    jkenney@ui.urban.org
  • LEIGHTON KU
    Senior Fellow, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
    Washington DC 20010
    202-408-1080
    KU@CBPP.ORG
  • JOANN LAMPHERE
    National Coordinator, Health and LTC Team, AARP
    Washington DC 20049
    202-434-3952
    JLamphere@aarp.org
  • ENRIQUE MARTINEZ-VIDAL
    Director, State Coverage Initiatives, AcademyHealth
    Washington DC 20006
    202-292-6700
    Enrique.Martinez-Vidal@academyhealth.org
  • TRUDI MATTHEWS
    Associate Director for Health Policy, The Council of State Governments
    Lexington KY 40578
    859-244-8157
    tmatthews@csg.org
  • LAWRENCE MCANDREWS
    President & CEO, National Association of Children's Hospitals
    Alexandria VA 22314
    703-684-1355
    lmcandrews@nachri.org
  • MARK McCLELLAN
    Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution
    Washington DC 20036
    202-741-6567
    smcway@brookings.edu
  • BRENDAN McTAGGART
    Communications Director, National Health Law Program
    Washington DC 20005
    202-289-7661
    brendan@healthlaw.org
  • MARK MERLIS
    Health policy consultant
    New Hope PA 18938
    215-862-9450
    markmerlis@comcast.net
  • TOM MILLER
    Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute
    Washington DC 20036
    202-862-5886
    tmiller@aei.org
  • ALICIA MITCHELL
    Vice President, Media Relations, American Hospital Association
    Washington DC 20004
    202-626-2339
    amitchell@aha.org
  • JUDITH MOORE
    Senior Fellow, National Health Policy Forum
    Washington DC 20037
    202-872-0292
    jdmoore@gwu.edu
  • MICHAEL O'GRADY
    Senior Fellow, NORC at the University of Chicago
    washington DC 20036
    202-223-7933
    MOGrady@UChicago.edu
  • EDWIN PARK
    Senior Health Policy Analyst, Center on Budget & Policy Priorities
    Washington DC 20002
    510-524-8033
    park@cbpp.org
  • KIP PIPER
    President, Health Results Group LLC
    Washington DC 20006
    202-558-5658
    piper@healthresultsgroup.com
  • RON POLLACK
    Executive Director, Families USA
    Washington, D.C. DC 20005
    202-628-3030
    rpollack@familiesusa.org
  • MICHAEL POLLARD
    Consultant, Federal Policy & Regulation, Medco Health Solutions, Inc.
    Washington DC 20004
    202-639-1884
    michael_pollard@medco.com
  • MARTHA ROHERTY
    Director, National Association of State Medicaid Directors
    Washington DC 20002
    202-682-0100 ext. 299
    mroherty@aphsa.org
  • SARA ROSENBAUM
    Chair, Department of Health Policy, George Washington University
    Washington DC 20006
    202-530-2343
    sarar@gwu.edu
  • DIANE ROWLAND
    Executive Director, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured
    Washington DC 20005
    202-347-5270
    drowland@kff.org
  • MATT SALO
    Director of Health Legislation, National Governors Association
    Washington DC 20001
    202-624-5336
    msalo@nga.org
  • JOHN SHEILS
    Vice President, The Lewin Group
    Falls Church VA 22042
    703-269-5610
    john.sheils@Lewin.com
  • JUDITH SOLOMON
    Senior Fellow, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
    Washington DC 20002
    (202) 408-1080
    solomon@cbpp.org
  • STEPHEN A. SOMERS
    President, Center for Health Care Strategies
    Hamilton NJ 08619
    609-528-8369/8400
    lmartin@chcs.org
  • MICHAEL TANNER
    Director, Health & Welfare Studies, Cato Institute
    Washington DC 20001
    202-789-5258
    mtanner@cato.org
  • ALAN WEIL
    Executive Director, National Academy for State Health Policy
    Washington DC 20036
    202-903-0101
    aweil@nashp.org
  • TIM WESTMORELAND
    Visiting Professor of Law, Research Professor of Public Policy, Georgetown University
    Washington DC 20007
    202-687-0880
    Westmort@law.georgetown.edu
  • JOSHUA WIENER
    Senior Fellow, RTI International
    Washington, DC 20005
    202-728-2094
    jwiener@rti.org
  • PETERS WILLSON
    Vice President, Public Policy, National Association of Children's Hospitals
    Alexandria VA 22314
    703-797-6006
    pwillson@nachri.org
  • JUDITH WOOLDRIDGE
    Senior Vice President, Mathematica Policy Research
    Princeton NJ 08543-2393
    609-275-2370
    jwooldridge@mathematica-mpr.com
  • JENNIFER YOUNG
    Principal, Tarplin, Downs & Young
    Washington DC 20005
    202-898-4733
    jyoung@tdyllc.com
  • STEPHEN ZUCKERMAN
    Principal Research Associate, The Urban Institute
    Washington DC 20015
    202-261-5679
    szuckerm@ui.urban.org

Selected Websites

Glossary on the Uninsured

ADVANCEABLE TAX CREDIT - A subsidy to help pay for health insurance that is available when the insurance premium is due, without having to wait until a year-end tax return is filed. Also see "tax credit."

ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL) - An index or scale which measures a patient's degree of independence in bathing, dressing, using the toilet, eating and transferring (moving from a bed to a chair, for example). Used to determine need for long-term care and eligibility for payments for care by insurers.

ACUTE CARE - Medical services provided to treat an illness or injury, usually for a short time. Contrast with "chronic care."

BLOCK GRANT - A lump sum of money given to a state or local government to be spent for certain purposes. Normally, it is based on a formula, the objectives are broadly defined and the grant's source places relatively few limits on the money's use.

CAPITATION - Method of payment for health services in which a health care provider is paid a fixed amount for each person on the provider's patient roster, regardless of the actual number or nature of services provided to each person.

CARVE-OUTS - A payer strategy in which an HMO or insurance company isolates ("carves out") a benefit and hires another organization to provide this service. Common carve-outs include behavioral health and prescription drugs. The technique is intended to allow the insurer to better control its costs.

CASE MANAGEMENT - A process where a health plan identifies covered persons with specific health care needs, then devises and carries out for them a plan to achieve the best patient outcome in the most cost-effective manner.

CASH AND COUNSELING - A Medicaid long-term care waiver demonstration program that allows certain Medicaid beneficiaries to purchase their own personal care and related services. Medicaid provides a monthly allowance, the amount of which is determined after assessing the beneficiary's need for community-based long-term care services. Starting in 2007, states may implement similar capped programs covering costs of self-directed personal care services without a waiver.

CATEGORICAL ELIGIBILITY - Medicaid's eligibility pathway for individuals who can be covered. The program's 25+ categories can be organized into five broad groups - children, pregnant women, adults in families with dependent children, individuals with disabilities and the elderly. Certain individuals, notably single adults without children, cannot qualify for Medicaid, even if their incomes are low enough to meet financial eligibility standards.

CHRONIC CARE - Medical services provided to those a chronic condition, one that is not expected to improve, that lasts a year or longer or recurs, and may result in long-term care needs. Chronic illnesses include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy and some mental illnesses. Contrast with "acute care."

CHURNING - The cycle involving a person's enrollment in a health insurance program (such as Medicaid or employer-sponsored coverage), then losing eligibility, the regaining it and re-enrolling.

COINSURANCE - A portion of the bill for a medical service, that is not covered by the patient's health insurance policy and therefore must be paid out of pocket by the patient. Coinsurance refers to a percentage, e.g., 10 percent of the total charge up to a specified maximum. Contrast with "copayment."

COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER (CHC) - Organization providing comprehensive primary care to medically underserved populations, regardless of their ability to pay. These public and non-profit entities receive federal funding under Section 330 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

COPAYMENT - A flat dollar amount that a patient must pay out of pocket for a medical service, e.g. $5 per office visit.

COST SHIFTING - The practice by which a seller of a health service, such as a hospital, increases charges for some payers to offset losses due to uncompensated or indigent care or lower payments from other payers.

CROSS-SUBSIDY - The concept of certain purchasers paying more for medical services than they otherwise would so that others can pay less (or nothing at all), or another activity can be funded. In the U.S. health system, this mechanism has been used to pay for medical services for the poor and uninsured, medical education and research.

CROWD-OUT - A phenomenon whereby expansions of public programs designed to extend coverage to the uninsured encourage some employers to drop coverage, or cause some employees to enroll themselves and/or family members in public coverage programs rather than employer-sponsored coverage.

DEDUCTIBLE - A fixed amount, usually expressed in dollars in the form of an annual fee, that the beneficiary of a health insurance plan must pay directly to the health care provider before a health insurance plan begins to pay for any costs associated with the insured medical service.

DEFICIT REDUCTION ACT OF 2005 (DRA) - The DRA made significant changes to the Medicaid program - for example, allowing states to increase premiums and cost-sharing for families and to base benefits on private plans. The law also tightened long-term care asset transfers and capped the amount of home equity that can be disregarded in measuring eligibility at $500,000. A DRA provision in effect since July 1, 2006 requires Medicaid beneficiaries to show proof of citizenship upon applying for or renewing their benefits. For more information, see www.kff.org/medicaid/7465.cfm.

DEFINED BENEFIT - A health insurance model used by an employer or government program where specified health services covered under the plan are standardized and guaranteed. The cost of providing the standard benefits may fluctuate. One example of a defined benefit plan is Medicare. Contrast with "defined contribution."

DEFINED CONTRIBUTION - A health benefit model used by employers or government programs where health services covered may fluctuate based on choice of plan, but the employer or government contributes a set amount (percentage or dollar amount) towards the purchase of the selected health plan. A defined contribution plan limits the financial liability of employers or the government, because the contribution is defined, or fixed. An example of a defined contribution plan is the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Contrast with "defined benefit."

DISPROPORTIONATE SHARE HOSPITAL (DSH) ADJUSTMENT - An increased payment under Medicare's prospective payment system or under Medicaid for hospitals that serve a relatively large number of low-income uninsured patients.

DUAL ELIGIBLE - A Medicare beneficiary who also receives either a full range of Medicaid benefits offered in his or her state, or help through Medicaid with Medicare out-of-pocket expenses. For more information, see www.cms.hhs.gov/DualEligible. Also see "qualified Medicare beneficiary" and "specified low-income Medicare beneficiary."

FEDERAL MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PERCENTAGE (FMAP) - Percentage used to determine the amount of federal matching funds for state Medicaid expenditures. By law, FMAP cannot be less than 50 percent or exceed 80 percent. Slightly higher Enhanced Federal Medical Assistance Percentages are used to determine matching payments for the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). These payments cannot exceed 85 percent of the state's total SCHIP expenditures. For more information, see http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/fmap07.htm.

FEDERAL POVERTY GUIDELINES - Income amounts set each February by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services used to determine an individual's or family's eligibility for various public programs, including Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Sometimes called Federal Poverty Level/Line (FPL). (The poverty guidelines are different from the U.S. Census Bureau's "poverty thresholds," which are used for Census statistical purposes.) For the 2007 poverty guidelines, see http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/07poverty.shtml

HEALTH INSURANCE FLEXIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY (HIFA) DEMONSTRATION INITIATIVE - A Bush Administration initiative to encourage states to apply for certain Medicaid Section 1115 and SCHIP waivers. HIFA waivers make it possible for states to offer private health insurance coverage or employer-sponsored coverage, with subsidies, as an alternative to enrolling beneficiaries in traditional Medicaid or SCHIP. For more information, see www.cms.hhs.gov/HIFA

HEALTH OPPORTUNITY ACCOUNT (HOA) - A type of health savings account for Medicaid beneficiaries created by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 . States may deposit annual sums of up to $2,500 per adult and $1,000 per child into the account, to be used to pay for medical expenses not covered by the high deductible health plan with which the account is coupled. Beginning January 1, 2007, as many as 10 states could initiate HOA demonstration projects. Compare to "Health Savings Account" and "Health Reimbursement Arrangement."

HEALTH REIMBURSEMENT ARRANGEMENT (HRA) - A type of health insurance plan also known as "health reimbursement account" or "personal care account," HRAs are tax-preferred accounts with funds established by employers to reimburse employees for qualified medical expenses; often HRAs are paired with a high-deductible health plan. An HRA may be used by an employee to pay for medical coverage until funds are exhausted. Once the deductible is reached, normal coverage begins. Any unused funds are rolled over at the end of the year, but do not follow the employee once he or she changes jobs. Compare to "health savings account."

HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNT (HSA) - A type of health insurance plan similar to a Health Reimbursement Account, but which is owned by workers. An HSA is a tax-preferred savings account and is paired with a high-deductible health plan. Any employer can offer an HSA (or a self-employed individual can set one up on his or her own), and both employers and employees can contribute to it. The worker must pay for all services until the amount of the deductible is reached (in 2007, a minimum of $1,100 for an individual and $2,200 for family coverage). The worker can withdraw money from the HSA to pay for medical services under the deductible. Once the deductible is reached, normal coverage begins. Any unused funds are rolled over at the end of the year. Unlike HRAs, HSAs follow an employee when he or she changes jobs. Also see "health reimbursement arrangement."

HOME AND COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICES (HCBS) - State-designed HCBS encompass case management, adult day care, home health aide assistance, personal care, assisted living services and respite care. Section 1915(c) of the Social Security Act permits the HHS Secretary to approve Medicaid waivers that allow for long-term care services to be delivered in community instead of institutional settings. The Deficit Reduction Act also created a new capped HCBS option that allows states to offer these services without having to obtain administrative waiver approval. See "Medicaid Section 1915 Waiver."

HOME HEALTH CARE - Health services rendered in the home, including skilled nursing care, speech therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, rehabilitation therapy and social services. Medicare covers some home health care services if the beneficiary is homebound but does not require more than 35 hours of services per week. Medicaid pays for home health care services in 12 states.

HOME HEALTH AGENCY (HHA) - Health care provider organization that renders skilled nursing and health care services in the home. See "home health care."

INSTRUMENTAL ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (IADLs) - Activities relating to independent living, which include preparing meals, keeping a budget, purchasing groceries, performing housework and using a telephone. IADLs refer to skills beyond basic self care, or "activities of daily living."

INTERGOVERNMENTAL TRANSFER (IGT) - Transfer of funds among or between different levels of government, including state-owned or operated facilities and local governments. The term is most often used in Medicaid, where transfers of non-federal public funds to the state Medicaid agency are used to draw down federal matching funds. States also use IGTs to draw down federal "disproportionate share hospital adjustment" and "upper payment limit" funds.

LONG-TERM CARE (LTC) - Ongoing health and social services provided for individuals who need continuing assistance with activities of daily living and/or instrumental activities of daily living. Services can be provided in an institution, the home or the community, and include informal services provided by family and friends as well as formal services provided by professionals or agencies. Medicaid is the primary payer of LTC services in nursing homes.

MANAGED CARE - Care provided by a health care organization, such as a health maintenance organization (HMO) or preferred provider organization (PPO), that contracts to provide medical services to a group of enrollees in exchange for capitated monthly premiums. Payments to physicians and other practitioners in HMOs are often lower than fee-for-service payments.

MEANS-TESTING - Determining eligibility for government benefits based on an individual's lack of means, as measured by income and/or assets. Under Medicaid, means-testing differs for different eligibility groups (see "categorical eligibility").

MEDICAID - Public health insurance program that provides coverage for an estimated 60 million low-income persons for acute and long-term care. It is financed jointly by state and federal funds (the federal government pays at least 50 percent of the total cost in each state), and is administered by states within broad federal guidelines. Contrast with "Medicare."

MEDICAID SECTION 1115 WAIVER - Under Section 1115(a) of the Social Security Act, the secretary of Health and Human Services may waive most provisions of Medicaid law for demonstrations "likely to assist in promoting the objectives" of the program. Under long-standing policy, these waivers must be cost-neutral. Demonstration waivers may be granted for research purposes, to test a program improvement, or investigate a new way of delivering services.

MEDICAID 1915 (b) AND (c) WAIVER - Under Section 1915(b) of the Social Security Act, the secretary of Health and Human Services may waive any provision of Medicaid law that prevent states from limiting beneficiaries' ability to choose providers. Section 1915(b) waivers are often sought by states that hope to control costs through managed care. Under Section 1915(c), the Secretary can allow states to obtain matching funds for long-term care services provided to Medicaid beneficiaries in home and community-based settings. Waivers are effective for two years.

MEDICALLY NEEDY - A Medicaid category for income eligibility in which states can choose to cover individuals and families who quality for coverage because of high medical expenses, usually for hospital or nursing home care. To qualify, individuals must be categorically eligible and their monthly incomes minus accumulated medical bills must be below state income limits for the Medicaid program. This allows Medicaid coverage for people who have extensive health care needs but too much income to be eligible for Medicaid. Also see "spend-down."

MEDICARE - Federal health insurance program for virtually all persons age 65 and older, and permanently disabled persons under age 65, who qualify by receiving Social Security Disability Insurance. Contrast with "Medicaid."

MEDICARE SAVINGS PROGRAM - A series of Medicaid-financed provisions enacted by Congress beginning in 1988 to assist Medicare beneficiaries who do not qualify for a full Medicare benefits package. People enrolled in MSPs are often referred to as "dual eligibles" because they are usually eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid.

PREMIUM ASSISTANCE - The use of federal funds available through public health coverage programs -- especially Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program -- to purchase or help purchase private insurance.

PRIMARY CARE CASE MANAGEMENT, INITIATIVE, OR CLINICIAN - (PCCM/PCI/PCC) - A Medicaid managed care program in which an eligible individual may use services only with authorization from his or her assigned primary care provider. That provider is responsible for locating, coordinating, and monitoring all primary and other medical services for enrollees. Those services are usually paid on a fee-for-service basis.

QUALIFIED MEDICARE BENEFICIARY (QMB) - A person who is eligible for Medicare, has an income below 100 percent of the federal poverty level and has limited assets, is eligible to receive cost-sharing assistance if enrolled in the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary program. Under the QMB program, state Medicaid agencies are required to pay the cost of Medicare Part A and B premiums, deductibles, and coinsurance. For more information, see www.cms.hhs.gov/DualEligible. Compare to "specified low-income Medicare beneficiary."

SAFETY NET PROVIDERS - Providers that have a primary focus of servicing low-income and uninsured people. They include community and migrant health centers and public hospitals.

SECTION 1115 WAIVER - See "Medicaid Section 1115 Waiver"

SECTION 1915 (a) AND (b) WAIVER - See "Medicaid 1915 (a) and (b) Waiver"

SPECIFIED LOW-INCOME MEDICARE BENEFICIARY (SLMB) - A person who is eligible for Medicare, has an income of between 100 to 120 percent of the federal poverty level and has limited assets, is eligible to receive cost-sharing assistance if enrolled in the Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary program. Under the SLMB program, state Medicaid agencies are required to pay the beneficiary's Part B premiums, but not deductibles or copayments. Also see "qualified Medicare beneficiary." For more information, see www.cms.hhs.gov/DualEligible.

SPEND-DOWN - Process by which individuals in many states can qualify for Medicaid because high medical expenses, usually hospital or nursing home care, reduce their monthly income to below state income limits for the Medicaid program. The amount that each individual must "spend down" is determined at the time eligibility is determined. Also see "medically needy."

STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAM (SCHIP) - A program enacted by Congress in 1997 that provides federal matching funds for states to spend on health coverage for uninsured kids. The program is designed to reach uninsured children whose families earn too much money to qualify for Medicaid but not enough to afford private coverage.

SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME (SSI) - A federal income support program for low-income disabled, aged and blind individuals. Eligibility for SSI monthly cash payments does not depend on previous employment or contributions to a trust fund. Eligibility for SSI usually confers eligibility for Medicaid.

TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) - The block grant program that, in 1996, replaced categorical welfare assistance such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Under TANF, time limits are set for cash benefits, and recipients are expected to accept work or be enrolled in training programs. TANF was reauthorized in 2005 as part of the Deficit Reduction Act with $16.4 billion in annual funding through FY 2010. For more information, see www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/.

TRANSITIONAL MEDICAL ASSISTANCE (TMA) - Medicaid coverage for up to one year for families leaving welfare to become self-supporting through work. During this transition period, states are required to continue Medicaid benefits even if earnings increase. For more information, see http://opencrs.cdt.org/document/RL31698/.

UPPER PAYMENT LIMIT (UPL) - Federal regulatory payment limit governing what states can pay eligible public facilities for Medicaid services. The UPL is usually the rate Medicare would pay for the same service. In some cases, states request federal matching funds in amounts that exceed the state's standard Medicaid reimbursement rate, and use the new revenues generated for other goods or services. Also see "Intergovernmental Transfer."

Endnotes

1 Congressional Budget Office, "Statement of Donald B. Marron, Acting Director: Medicaid Spending Growth and Options for Controlling Costs," Testimony before the Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate, July 13, 2006. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/73xx/doc7387/07-13-Medicaid.pdf

2 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, "2006 Medicaid Managed Care Enrollment Report," June 30, 2006. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicaidDataSourcesGenInfo/Downloads/mmcer06.pdf

3 Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, "New Survey Indicates Medicaid Enrollment Declines for the First Time in Nearly a Decade," Oct. 10, 2007. http://www.kff.org/medicaid/kcmu101007nr.cfm

4 Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, "The Medicaid Program At a Glance," March 2007. http://www.kff.org/medicaid/upload/7235-02.pdf

5 Kaiser Family Foundation State Health Facts, "Total Medicaid Spending FY 2006," http://www.statehealthfacts.org/comparetable.jsp?cat=4&ind=177. This page also included individual spending for each state in 2006.

6 National Association of State Budget Officers, "The Fiscal Survey of States," June 2007. www.nasbo.org/Publications/PDFs/Fiscal%20Survey%20of%20the%20States%20June%202007.pdf

7 National Conference of State Legislatures (2007). "State Budget Actions FY 2006 and FY 2007." http://www.ncsl.org/programs/fiscal/sba06sum.htm

8 Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, "Medicaid: A Primer," March 2007. http://www.kff.org/medicaid/upload/7334%20Medicaid%20Primer_Final%20for%20posting-3.pdf

9 Rowland, Diane (2005) "Medicaid - Implications for the Health Safety Net," New England Journal of Medicine 353(14): 1439-1441. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/353/14/1439

10 Kaiser Commission of Medicaid and the Uninsured, "The Medicaid Program at a Glance." March 2007. (www.kff.org/medicaid/7334-02.cfm)

11 AARP, "The Medicaid Matching Formula: Responding to States in Times of Need," March 2007. http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/health/fs134_medicaid.pdf

12 Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, "State Fiscal Conditions and Medicaid," October 2006, p. 2. http://www.kff.org/medicaid/upload/7580.pdf

13 Robert Pear, "Planned Medicaid Cuts Cause Rift with States," New York Times, Aug. 13, 2006.

14 David M. Cutler and Jonathan Gruber, "Does Public Insurance Crowd Out Private Insurance" National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 5082, April 1995, http://www.nber.org/papers/w5082.v5.pdf, cited in Andrew M. Grossman and Greg D'Angelo, "SCHIP and 'Crowd-Out': How Public Program Expansion Reduces Private Coverage." Heritage Foundation, June 21, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/HealthCare/wm1518.cfm

15 Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, "Vermont's Global Commitment Waiver: Implications for the Medicaid Program." May 2, 2006. http://www.kff.org/medicaid/7493.cfm

16 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, "Medicaid State Waiver Program Demonstration Projects - General Information," http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicaidStWaivProgDemoPGI/